There are also modern theories of migration. These modern theories comprise of the “Out of Sundaland” and “Out of Taiwan” theories. The “Out of Sundaland” hypothesized the origins of the Austronesian peoples as being part of the sunken Sundaland landmass. This included Sumatra, Java, Sumatra Peninsula, and Borneo. The Austronesian explorers of 6,000 years ago, it’s hypothesized, traveled through Austronesian islands using small boats and canoes. So the present-day Austronesians (people in Java or New Guinea, for example) are probably descendants of agriculturalists who spread through Austronesia 6,000 years ago. Back to article list June 14, 2011 JESUS T. There are two major hypotheses defining the Neolithic Age Austronesian movement: the “out of Taiwan or South China” theory by the language-oriented Peter Bellwood; and ‘Island Origin” theory by the Southeast Asian specialist, the archaeologist, Wilhelm Solheim; and another by Stephen Oppenheimer. Problem solving part 1 (math)mr. standring's webware 2nd. There are continue reading →.


The term, AUSTRONESIAN () PEOPLE, refers to a family of people categorizedand by their language and culture and more recently, their DNA. Studying theindigenous culture of the Austronesian people, especially the history, revealsstriking similarities. Similarities can be found in their music, dancing,hunting, singing, weaving, weaponry and traditions. A traditional stone weaponknown as the “batu” or “patu” can be found in Taiwan, New Zealand, Polynesia,and even Peru, with similar size and shape in all of these areas. This leadssome academics to suggest an Austronesian connection to South America.
AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES are similar in structure, and sharemuch of their vocabulary. Even today, the Maori people in New Zealand, thenative Hawaiians, and tribal peoples of Taiwan use many of the same words intheir language. For example, their word for “eye” in many Austronesianlanguages is “mata or masa.” This includes Taiwan’s Amis, Bunun, Paiwan,Puyuma, Siraya and Yami languages. This word is also the same in Bali, Bungku,Makassar and many other Indonesian languages. The word is the same in manytribal languages in the Philippines, Polynesia and New Zealand. It ispronounced “maka” in Hawaii and “mat” in Vietnamese. The word 'Matahari' originated in Indonesia and comes from the Austronesian words, 'mata-eye' and 'hari-day.'
AUSTRONESIA refers to the geographic region originally settledby Austronesian peoples. This covers and area of 40+ countries throughout thePacific Ocean, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean. The range includes Taiwanin the North, to New Zealand in the South, to Easter Island in the East andMadagascar in the West. Austronesian countries also include the Philippines,Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Cambodia and Vietnam.

Austronesian Language Family

There are several AUSTRONESIAN MIGRATION THEORIES supportedby different academic researchers. Some researchers conclude that Austronesiansmigrated from the region that is now India, through Southeast Asia, Indonesiaand across the Pacific islands. Some point to evidence of a connection to SouthAmerica and conclude that Austronesians may have originated there. Scientistsmore recently have supported the theory that Austronesians originated from theisland of what is now known as Taiwan. Different groups have supported theirfavorite versions, either because it is often easier to support longstandingtheories, or because there may be political reasons to support their favoriteversions. However, aside from their political interests, people should considerto strengthen their case with a rational approach and base their conclusions onthe most up-to-date body of scientific evidence, which is growing every day.
Some of the most basic evidence is based on common sense,rather than advanced science or technology. Just having observation andinteraction with Austronesian cultures around the world, one can see thesimilarities. Also, if there was a source of culture and language thatdispersed over a wide region over thousands of years, one would expect that thelocation with the most diverse Austronesian languages and cultures would be thesource. Taiwan would certainly qualify, being home to at least twenty-sevenAustronesian languages and cultures, sixteen of which are currently recognized.Also, common sense dictates that the location with the oldest evidence of Austronesianculture would be the likely source. Evidence of Austronesian peoples in Taiwandates back to 8,000 years ago. Austronesian artifacts anywhere else doesn'tshow up until thousands of years later.

Austronesian People History

Thanks to the dutiful efforts of scientists, including DNAresearchers, archaeologists, linguists, geologists, biologists and botanists, abody of scientific evidence is growing and migration patterns are coming intofocus. The most important advanced research is bringing migration theories intosharper focus, and disproving some traditional theories.
Perhaps the most indisputable research on genetic identityand mapping is being done by Dr. Marie Lin (林媽利),director and professor at the Transfusion Medicine Laboratory of MackayMemorial Hospital (馬偕紀念醫院輸血醫學實驗室) inTaipei and by other scientists in Taiwan. (Intro on Dr. Marie Lin) She had studied blood samples from people all over Taiwan, and noticedanomalies from Taiwan’s indigenous peoples. Dr. Lin studies the DNA in themitochondria of blood cells, which is an even more accurate indicator ofgenetic ancestry and identity.

Mitochondria has unique protein types (haplotypes) that are passed down through the mothers from generation to generation. There is a unique type of haplotype that only Austronesian peoples have (E Haplotype), which cannot be found in people of Mainland China.
The 8,000 year-old Austronesian predecessor, LiangDao Man. Its likeness was recreated from skeletal remains and DNA evidence.

In December of 2011, a groundbreaking archaeological findrevealed a previously unknown 8,000 yr old ancestor of Austronesian peoples.The Liangdao Man, found on Liangdao Island, off the coast of China in the Matsu Archipelago, which is part of the Republic of China (Taiwan). Detailedmitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) evidence was conducted on Liangdao Man in a Germanlaboratory. Analysis revealed that Liangdao Man was the pure source of the EHaplotype, which can be found in all Austronesian groups. As you get furtheraway from Taiwan, there is more genetic mixing with other ethnic groups and areduction in percentage of the E Haplotype. Furthermore, at some time about20,000 years ago, on the Asian mainland, the E Haplotype branched off from apredecessor Haplotype, which most Asians share. (Liangdao Man Resource 1 Liangdao Man Resource 2 Liangdao Man Resource 3 Liangdao Man Resource 4)
Migration
What this clarifies is that the ancient ancestors ofAustronesians may have migrated over 20,000 years ago across Northern Asia andsplit apart with a unique identity about 10,000 years ago. They may have beenpushed out of the mainland by warring groups, settling on the outlying islands,and eventually finding their way to Taiwan about 7,000-8,000 years ago. Some ofthese ancient ancestors from about 10,000 years ago may have pushed northwardsand ended up in Japan as the ancestors of the indigenous Ainu people.

Austronesian Migration Culture

With this migration theory, the Austronesians populatedTaiwan from 8,000 years ago to 2,000 years ago, living in isolated regionsseparated by high mountains and ocean, diversifying and developing their ownunique culture and language subgroups. Driven by fighting and competition forresources, some tribes may have navigated on ships to settle new lands, hoppingto the nearby Philippines, before spreading Southwards and Eastwards acrossthe Pacific. Once the Austronesian settlers reached what are now the IndonesianIslands, they interacted and mixed with the Melanesian settlers that weremigrating from Southeast Asia. Austronesian and Melanesian cultures combined toform unique cultural forms, an languages also mixed and influenced each other.
Paper Pacific Mulberry

Austronesian Migration Theory Tagalog


There are other forms of scientific evidence that supportthe Austronesian Migration Theory from Taiwan. This includes the study of the migration of the Pacific Paper Mulberry, an important tree that Austronesians used to produce textiles for their clothing. There is also strong evidence thatthe Taiwan dingo dog (and a rat species), coconuts, and sweet potatoes followed the Austronesians on their migrationroutes, as well as other plants that were used for sustenance.

Austronesian Migrations Definition



Austronesian Migration Through Oceania

As a sidenote, the Austronesians were likely not the firstsettlers of Taiwan. During the Ice Age, about 20,000 years ago, a race of darkpygmies migrated across a land bridge to the island that is now Taiwan. Thereare records of a race of dark pygmy people that were killed off by the Saisiyat tribe of Taiwan. In fact, dark skinned pygmies could have migrated from Africain prehistoric times in a much earlier migration that spread across SouthernAsia and even up to Taiwan. There are pygmies or Negritos that can be found inIndia, Andaman Islands, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand, and are thought to come from theAustrlaoid-Melanesian ancestral lineage. These Aboriginal ancestors may havealso settled Australia about 40,000 years ago, and completely dominated thecontinent. Austronesians may have had contact with Australia, but it is perhapsthis Aboriginal domination that prevented Austronesians from settlingpermanently on the continent.
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