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  1. In this assignment, I will elaborate on the contemporary issues of the stress at workplace. Stress is the reaction of the body to a change in the environment and event that happen that resulting in the need of a physical, mental as well as an emotional adjustment or response.
  2. Some contemporary issues are useful and unifying for society like electronic banking while others can be divisive such as politics, climate issues, and more. The more advanced a person is in the culture of our times is usually more aware of contemporary issues than one who is remote and disconnected from society.

Find contemporary issues lesson plans and teaching resources. From teaching contemporary issues worksheets to contemporary issues divorce videos, quickly find teacher-reviewed educational resources. The most important issues facing America today are certainly frightening, and unfortunately, not all of these will have direct and obvious solutions that can be executed in the short-term, but.

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A contemporary health issue refers to the current or occurring topics/ situations in health. These include issues such as hospital care standards, elderly care, and funding and governments cuts among others (Health, 2002). Health and social care issues are issues of public interest and there are various factors, which may influence public debate on such matters. The following is a discussion on issues, which affect public debate on health, and social care issues. The report discusses how information relating to health and social care give rise to issues of concern to the public. It investigates how issues of public concern related to health and social care are represented in the media. This is through an analysis of the various ways in which the media may be used in influencing public opinion on health and social care issues and an evaluation of how the public can assess the reliability and validity of media information about health and social care. The report also analyzes the likely influence on health and social care issues will have on the development of services.


Contents 2

2.1. Role of the Media 3

2.2. Reliability and validity of media information 5


3.1. Health inequalities 5

3.2. Cultural and Ethnic inequalities 6

3.3. Relevance of Findings 7

3.4. Factors leading to cultural and ethnic inequalities 7


4.1. Government Role 8

4.2. Health and Social Care Provision and Services 8





2.1. Role of the Media

The media plays different roles today and one of the most significant of the roles is informing people about the most recent happenings around them. In health care, the media plays this role by informing people on current affairs in the health and social care (Eriksen, 1993). This includes covering such issues as disease outbreaks, new drugs, new treatment methods and medical advancements among others. The demand for information has led to the development of TV and Radio channels, newspapers, magazines and periodicals specifically for health and social care. News and discussion on current issues in the world of health are carried out thus providing information to the public (Lightstone, 2001). These discussions from different experts and policy makers on health and social care play a major role in influencing the opinion of the public towards these issues. For instance, there has been an ongoing discussion on how the government has joined a lawsuit, which accused a unit of Novartis of paying millions of dollars to doctors in exchange for prescribing the drugs produced by the company. This is a current health and social care issue in the U.S. and will influence the attitudes and behaviors of the public towards the drugs produced by the company (Triggle, 2010).

The media may also influence the attitudes and behavior of people in relation to health and social care in its role as the watchdog of the political system. When the media plays its role independently and without bias, it can create awareness on health and social care in relation to the political systems. It plays this role by bringing details of major political decisions, situations and scenario which are related directly or indirectly to health and social care. The people are thus given the power of having information on what the government is doing for them, their rights and helps in decision making in relation to health and social care (Oliver & Shapiro, 1995).

The media also plays the role of an educator whereby due to the power it has to reach millions and millions of people can be used to educate people on health and social care. These include educating people on the dangers of smoking, taking drugs etc. This is done through health education campaigns and programmes through the social media. The media can also be used in making public announcements in issues relating to health and social care (Triggle, 2010). For example giving a warning of epidemics, revealing the dangers of particular drugs already in the market, among others. This will guide public behavior on particular issues in health and social care.

Businesses often use the media to advertise their products and services due to the ability of the media to influence the behavior of public. Health and social care businesses are no different and they also use the media to advertise for their services and products to the public. They make the adverts as interesting and attractive as possible, leading to people following it and using it to make decisions. Attracting the attention of the public is the goal of this advertisement due to the fact the more appealing the advert is to the audience; the more it will be able to influence the behavior and attitudes of the public.

2.2. Reliability and validity of media information

It is important for the public to evaluate the reliability and validity of media information before accepting it as a fact. This can be done by analyzing where the information is coming from, who is issuing the information and how the information has been presented. There are various sources of information for instance from political and religious agendas, government sources, and pressure groups among others. The public should evaluate whether there is any agenda behind presenting of the information or it merely a lay down of the facts. For instance, information from the ministry of health on a certain policy is more reliable than information acquired from a pressure group for or against that particular policy (Sproston & Mindell, 2006).

For instance, there is a campaign in the UK for better health and social care with the government planning to integrate the health and social care where older people are able to receive health and social care as a single service. The campaign is from the government who hold more weight at having the interest of the people at heart than some pressure group. In the USA, this can also be illustrated by media coverage on the Obama Health care bill. The reform is aimed at making reforms in the insurance industry and creating a pool which will provide affordable insurance to low and middle income citizens of America. This bill received a lot of attention with some people supporting it and other having major problems with it. The media in this case played a major role in representing facts and the opinion on the bill (Anon., 2013). The public should ensure that they get their facts from reliable sources such as the government websites or publications.


3.1. Health inequalities

Britain has been argued to be collectively healthier than it has ever been in its history. However despite the health of the population as a whole is improving, the health of the minorities and those who less is off is improving at a very low rate compared to the rest of the population. This has been a challenge that policy makers and health professionals have tried to solve. Sources of the inequalities have been reported to be socially determined (Harding & Maxwell, 1997). The labor sector and the education systems structure the accessibility of employment and income which are further determined and influenced by the rest of the society. Other inequalities are associated with gender, ethnicity and sexuality. Scholars have concluded that reducing the unequal distribution of the determinant of health will be crucial in improving the health sector in Britain (Randhawa, 2003). Data on immigrant mortality rates and morbidity implies that there is heterogeneity in the experience across the minority groups. Figure 1 illustrates the health inequalities umbrella.

3.2. Cultural and Ethnic inequalities

Ethnic minorities in the UK are approximately 8% of the total population which equates to about 4.6 million people. Studies have reveled that the minorities are given a lower quality of health care compared to the white Caucasians in diseases such as stroke, heart disease, cancer and mental health among others. Healthcare inequalities based on one’s ethnicity in the UK have been found in the last few years in many health facilities. There was report by the government published earlier in the decade provided information not only on the health gaps which exists within the country but also in specific areas where the gap was widening (Lightstone, 2001). The report said that the gap begins at birth and continue throughout life. For instance, babies born in poor families are more at risk of being born prematurely and are also at risk of getting chronic diseases later in life. This sets up a cycle of health inequalities. Figure 2 illustrates the slope index of inequality.

Over time, the government has provided various initiatives which have sought to investigate the issue of health inequalities and reduce it among the minority ethnic groups. These initiatives include the following:

Tackling Inequalities in Health- A progammme for Action (DH, 2002)

Health Challenge England (DH, 2006)

Spearhead Primary Care Trusts (DH, 2004)

Race for Health (Race for Health, 2007)

Health Survey for England-Minority Ethnic Groups (Sproston and Mindell, 2006)

The above initiatives among other programmes set to improve and reduce health gaps have been reported to be a success while others have been argued and reported to be unsuccessful in dealing with the health inequality.

3.3. Relevance of Findings

The research conducted on health and social care which is recorded and reported in various journals have been used by the health professionals to guide their practice and improve their service provision to the people. Such research is important as it creates awareness on the problems being faced in the health and social care sector and provides an overview of how these issues can be tackled. For instance, several scholars have provided research on the importance for training among health professionals on the issue of cultural and ethnic diversity within the UK population (Triggle, 2010). This enable the health professionals to be extra keen on the special need of the minority groups such as their beliefs and social situation. The research is also used by the public to inform them on current issues in the health and social care sector. In the example given above, the public is informed on the issue of health inequalities within the UK population. (Sproston & Mindell, 2006) Information from the government through their websites and publication of such issues as the health inequalities is also useful as it gives the public information on the issues. Agenda groups and advocacy groups also post information on social and health care issue on their websites and other forms of media to inform the public.

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy that began with efforts to treat borderline personality disorder (also known as Emotional Instability Disorder). There is evidence that DBT can be useful in treating mood disorders, suicidal ideation, and for change in behavioral patterns such as self-harm, and substance abuse. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) provides clients with new skills to manage painful emotions and decrease conflict in relationships. DBT specifically focuses on providing therapeutic skills in. By Susan Johnson / Psychotherapy Networker. Science suggests that emotion is anything but primitive and unpredictable. It’s a complex, exquisitely efficient information-processing system, designed to organize behavior rapidly in the interests of survival. It’s an internal signaling system, telling us about what matters in the flood of stimuli that bombard us and tuning us in to our own inner needs. What is an emotion dialectical behavioral training reliaslearning. DIALECTICAL BEHAVIORAL TRAINING What is an Emotion? Is an emotion the name that you give it– Love, fear, anger, sadness, anxiety, despair, happiness, joy? These are just a few of hundreds of emotions that have names in the English language.

3.4. Factors leading to cultural and ethnic inequalities

Ignorance of ethnic minority health care needs among the health professionals have need given as one possible factor. Despite the improved patient outcomes through cultural diversity programmes, there are no requirements for UK health professionals except in the field of psychiatry. There is a need for medical education to include principles which aim to meet the goal of improving the health of the whole population including identifying specific health needs, values and the communicative difficulties of the minorities (Randhawa, 2003). Other studies have also reported that many doctors and nurses especially those in the inner city areas have found that an increasing proportion of their patients belong to the ethnic minorities groups. Further there are reports that the Asian and West Indian population in Britain has grown steadily in size and as such a need to find solutions to this problem (Lightstone, 2001).


Dear Sir/ Madam,


4.1. Government Role

In the recent past, there has been a call for the NHS to do more in their measures set to reduce health inequalities. Various reports released to the public argue that the NHS is not doing enough to ensure that there is a reduction in the health disparities with some arguing that the gap is continuing to widen. These reports demand that the government should not only focus on dealing with the issue at the health facilities but should deal with the root causes of these inequalities. They say that enough attention is not being given to the social and economic problems which are the root causes of poor health (Anon., 2013).

There is a call for better education and training on social causes of illness, encourage the health professionals to act as advocates for the patients and adequate remuneration for the health professionals among others. The media has reported majorly on this issue illustrating health inequalities and other problems facing minority groups in the country. Some of the information released may be misleading and it is important for the government to be keen in providing facts to the public to ensure that they have the right information on the issue of health inequality. The government should use the wide range of media such as its websites, TVs, radios, newspapers among others to release health inequalities facts (Triggle, 2010). They should inform the public on the measures that they have taken to deal with these inequalities such as the progress reports on the initiatives they have put in place.

4.2. Health and Social Care Provision and Services

Information released to the public will greatly influence their behavior and attitudes towards certain issues. For instance, reports on the media on the widening gap on health with increased health inequalities towards the minority groups will influence the opinions of the public. This would result to such issues as minority groups forming groups which seek to improve the awareness on this issue (Health, 1998). The group may organize support and seek the government to do more on the issue on health inequalities within a country. For instance, students in a local university from m minority groups might also form a group with the intent of creating awareness on this issue. They might set objectives such as educating the minority communities on their rights and educate them on ways to improve their lives (Lightstone, 2001). Information releases on such an issue lead to contemporary thinking on health and social care provision and services. This has led to protests and pressure to various governments to do more to provide better services to the public.


There are many contemporary issues facing society on health and social care such as the health inequalities existing in the UK as well as many other developed countries such as Australia and the USA (Randhawa, 2003). The media plays a major role in informing the public on the issues surrounding such issues, what the government is/or is not doing and what should be done to deal with these health and social care issues. The information given to the public majorly shapes their outlook and view towards these issues. The public should however be careful on who is providing the information, how the information is provided and where it is from. They should ensure that the information is both reliable and valid. Information released influence at a major capacity the attitudes and behavior of the public and as such there is need for care before such information is released and consumed by the public.

Contemporary Issues In Commerce



Anon., 2013. NHS told to do more to 'reduce health inequalities'. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 27 April 2013].

Eriksen, T., 1993. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Pluto Press.

Harding, S. & Maxwell, R., 1997. ‘Differences in mortality of migrants’ in Drever, F. and Whitehead, M. (eds) Health Inequalities. London: The Stationery Office.

Health(DH), D. o., 2006. Health Challenge England-Next Steps for Choosing health, London: Department of Health.

Health, D. o., 2002. Tackling Health Inequalitis: Cross cutting review, London: Department of Health.

Health, S. o. S. f., 1998. Our Healthier Nation: a contract on health, London: Stationery Office.

Lightstone, L., 2001. Preventing Kidney Disease: The ethnic challenge, Peterborough: National Kidney Research Fund.

Observatory, L. H., 2012. Health Inequalities, London: London Health Observatory.

Oliver, M. & Shapiro, T., 1995. Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.

Randhawa, G., 2003. ‘Developing culturally competent renal services in the United Kingdom. Transplantation Proceedings, Volume 35, pp. 21-23.

Smaje, C., 1996. The ethnic patterning of health: new directions for theory and research. Social Health Illness, Volume 18, pp. 139-171.

Sproston, K. & Mindell, J., 2006. Health Survey for England 2004. Volume 1: The health of minority ethnic groups, London: The Information Centre.

Triggle, N., 2010. Health gap 'wider than in Great Depression. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 27 April 2013].

Wild, S. & McKeigue, P., 1997. Cross sectional analysis of mortality by country of birth in England and Wales. British Medical Journal, Volume 314, pp. 705-710.

Williams, D., 2002. Racial/ethnic variations in women’s health: the social embeddedness of health. American Journal of Public Health, Volume 92, pp. 588-597.

“Who here doesn’t like history?” Students in my US History from 1865 to present class probably didn’t expect such a greeting from their professor. But they seemed intrigued when I laughed and raised my hand too. I told them that history as it’s often taught – as a succession of dates and names and events – was never presented as relevant to me. (I know I should care about history for history’s sake, but it’s hard, and most students surely don’t care in that way.) So, I told them, let’s make it relevant to us, to our time.

Inspired by Caleb McDaniel’s backwards US History course at Rice, I devised a project wherein students track an important issue in contemporary American life from 1865 to present. The Problems in American Life (PAL) project began by alphabetically splitting students into groups, and asking each group chose the five topics that most interested them from the following:

  • Police, prisons, and race
  • Gun legislation
  • The American military abroad
  • National security
  • Religious liberty
  • Women’s reproductive rights
  • Sexuality & gender norms
  • Americans’ obsession w/ celebrity
  • The global economy
  • Capitalism & economic inequality
  • Privacy
  • Big government
  • Environment: policies and human action
  • Human trafficking
  • Drug policy

To make choosing the final topic fairer, or at least more fun, we had an American History Battle trivia game, which I must admit was quite amusing.[1] The students were competitive and smart, all hoping to snag enough points to let them pick their favorite topic. There were enough themes that all the groups ended up with something that interested them. The last task in the first PAL group meeting was for groups to find a recent article from a reputable news source about their issue. In particular, they looked for an article that invoked historical claims not backed by sources or analysis. One of their main tasks for the semester will be to add footnotes and explanation to the news piece; in other words, they will be annotating the news.

Contemporary Issues In The Us

Students work in their PAL groups six more times throughout the semester. Four of those meetings they will discuss primary and secondary sources related to their topic in a particular time period. We had our first group discussions last week, during which they examined the context of their topic from 1776-1865. My two TAs and I searched high and low to find 4 primary and at least 2 secondary sources for each group. With two survey sections and some overlap of issue choices, that meant finding 48 primary sources and 24 secondary (12 topics total). This required a broad conception of each topic; for drug policy, we focused on the Whiskey Rebellion and temperance, while for privacy we included the Bill of Rights and Ruth H. Bloch’s article on wife beating in early America. During the next four meetings, students will read, analyze, and discuss sources from 1865–1914, 1914–1945, 1945–1960, and 1960–present.

The three main assessments for the PAL project are individual and group oriented. Firstly, students individually write three 500-word essays on a specific aspect of their group topic that interests them. Each of these essays focuses on a specific time period: 1865–1914, 1914–1960, 1960–present. Students must use 5 primary and 3 secondary sources in each essay. While they can incorporate sources read during their group meetings, they will have to seek out other evidence that more directly applies to their issue niche. The main point of these essays is to get students thinking critically about contemporary issues, to ask how and why issues develop and change, and how they affect individuals, communities, the nation, and the world in different ways. Students will use these essays to complete their second assessment, their final exam, will be a 10-page historical analysis of their issue from 1865 to present. They cannot simply reuse material from their PAL Individual Essays, but can rely on the same sources to tell a fuller, longer story of their issue.

These essays will supply fodder for their third (and main) assessment: a group digital exhibit. Using the Wix platform, their task is to create an exhibit that answers how their specific topic became such a major issue in American life. They cannot simply lay out the dates and events (although a timeline will be required), but must also expose the complexities of the topic, the changes and continuities, and the underlying forces at work. Perhaps most importantly, the exhibit must tell a story. Every good exhibit has a narrative, so the students must decide what their argument is and how to convince their audience of it. Additionally, each group must collaborate to design and build the exhibit.[2] Overall, the exhibits must be sensorily appealing, using images, sound, and text to engage visitors.

This may seem limiting, as if I’m asking students to be like academics and choose a very specific historical focus. This is, after all, a survey of American history. And I do give traditional-style lectures about the broader scope of American history (using the American Yawp as my base). But these only account for 16 of the 30 total class periods. Much of the students’ time and effort will be spent on this one project, with all its many components, because I have seen too many students disengaged from history, unable to find how they connect. I’m hoping that this project will, to put it crassly, trick them into being historians. That finding a specific topic that intrigues them will lead them down a rabbit hole of reading and research that, when they come out the other end, gives them a better understanding of themselves. Because history is a selfish endeavor; getting to know ourselves leads to asking bigger questions about one another. So let’s get students engaged with issues that matter to them as a way to getting them engaged with history. Perhaps this way when at the end of the semester I ask “Who here likes history?”, I’ll get a class full of raised hands.

Contemporary Issues

For now, though, I’m focused on finding sources and helping students write & create public history exhibits. I’ll update on the good and bad along the way.

[1] I also had them come up with history-themed trivia names, which included such gems as Teddy Broosevelt and Ciroc Obama.

Contemporary Issues 2019

[2] Wix is a very user-friendly platform, allowing for the easy creation of attractive exhibits. History, political science, and interdisciplinary studies majors at Mississippi University for Women’s History Department use wix to build their student research projects.

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