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A batch file is a collection of MS-DOS and Windows command line commands used on a computer. If you are familiar with the command line, you can use your prior knowledge to help you create a batch file. If you're new to the command line or need a refresher, see: How to use the Windows command line (DOS).

12 - J&K is expecting to receive 2.5 lakh doses of COVID19 vaccines on Monday. The first batch will be administered to the healthcare workers here.The drive for administering the. It has Arcade Manager CSV lists and Windows batch files to largely avoid the constant change of arcade ROMs, and so that everyone who uses this isn't making outdated ROM Sets. The ROM Set that you will make will consist of ROMs from FBN (v0.2.97.44 as of this post), MAME 2003 Plus, and MAME 2010 that have been tested to run full speed.

Batch commands

Below is a listing of commands used in a batch file with additional information about each of the commands.


Like all commands, all batch file commands are not case sensitive. However, we listed the batch file commands in all caps to help with identification.


The at symbol does not echo back text after the symbol. The @ is most often used as @ECHO OFF to only show the output of the command.


The percent followed by a numeric value, beginning with one, allows you to add matched variables to a batch file. The line below is an example of what can be used in a batch file.

With a batch file containing the above line if you type myname (name of bat file) and then your name, as shown below.

It would output 'Hello Bob' because 'Bob' is the first matched text.


You can keep going to %2, %3, etc. For example, you could use %2 for a middle name and %3 as the last name.


Two colons in front of a line remarks that line in the batch file and is never displayed when the batch file is run. Unlike REM, this line is not shown regardless if ECHO off is in the batch file.


Windows 3.1 for workgroups. By adding a colon in front of a word, such as LABEL, you create a category, more commonly known as a label. A label allows you to skip to certain sections of a batch file such as the end of the batch file. Also see GOTO.


A call is used to run another batch file within a batch file. When the batch file that is called is completed, the remainder of the original batch file is completed. If the batch file does not exist, you get an error.


The choice and set commands allow you to have options in your batch file. Further information about each of these commands is on the choice and set pages.


Like the DOS command, cls would clear your screen. Run the cls command at the top of your batch file to clear any previous commands or output. This action makes the batch file output easier to find and read.



Echo a message in the batch file. Such as ECHO Hello World prints Hello World on the screen when executed.


Without @ECHO OFF at the beginning of the batch file you'll also get 'ECHO Hello World' and 'Hello World.'


If you'd like to create a blank line, type ECHO. adding the period at the end creates an empty line.


Exits out of the DOS window if the batch file is running from Windows. See the exit command page for further information on this command.


Jumps to a label or section of a batch file. The goto function makes it easier to jump back to the start of a batch file if a condition is met, or an error occurs.


Used to check for a certain condition if the condition exists. If that condition exists, it performs that function. See the if command for further information on this command.


Prompt the user to press any key to continue.


One of two ways of adding remarks into the batch file without displaying or executing that line when the batch file is run.


The shift command changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch program. See the shift page for further information on this command.


Used to open Windows programs. For example, START C:WINDOWCALC would run the Windows Calculator. The start command can also be used to start any file Windows recognizes. For example, you could start a movie or audio file in a batch file to start your default player for that file.


In Windows 3.x, you need to utilize the WIN command. For example, WIN C:WindowsCALC.EXE would run Windows and then Calculator after Windows has finished loading.



See our command line overview and our MS-DOS help page for a full listing of MS-DOS and Windows command line commands.

Additional information

  • See our batch file definition for related links and information.
Lisa Taylor receives a COVID-19 vaccination from RN Jose Muniz as she takes part in a vaccine study at Research Centers of America on August 7, 2020 in Hollywood, Florida.

With three vaccine makers saying that their COVID-19 vaccines are at least 90% effective, the U.S. government is gearing up plans to distribute the shots across the country.

In a Nov. 24 briefing, members of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)—which oversees the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)—and Operation Warp Speed provided the latest information on the vaccine rollout. Most importantly, HHS Secretary Alex Azar said he’s ready to work with the incoming Biden administration’s transition team on vaccine rollout plans, following a decision by the General Services Administration to begin the handoff process.

“I reiterated my firm commitment that the transition planning and execution will be professional, cooperative and collaborative in the best spirit of looking out for the health and wellbeing of the American people,” Azar said during the briefing. He previously said that he would not initiate transition communications until the GSA decision.

Here’s what the Operation Warp Speed team, which is tasked with supporting development, manufacturing and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, revealed during the briefing:

An FDA committee will meet Dec. 10 to review Pfizer’s vaccine

A panel of independent experts convened by the FDA will review studies from each vaccine to determine if they are safe and effective enough to distribute to the public. First up are Pfizer and German biotech firm BioNTech, which filed an emergency use authorization (EUA) request for their COVID-19 vaccine on Nov. 20. The FDA group will meet to evaluate the shot, which the companies say is 95% effective in protecting against COVID-19, on Dec. 10.

Moderna is expected to submit a similar request to the FDA soon, and the committee will meet again to evaluate the Massachusetts-based company’s application. AstraZeneca will likely follow as well.

The first batch will include 6.4 million doses

Gen. Gus Perna, chief operating officer of Operation Warp Speed, said that he told state health departments on Nov. 20 that 6.4 million doses of vaccine will be available once the FDA issues the first EUA (at this point, Pfizer’s shots will most likely be the first to get the green light). “What will happen if more becomes available after the initial push is, we will go out following a weekly cadence to distribute [doses] accordingly, with 40 million [doses] by the end of the year.”

How much vaccine each state initially receives will be based on a rough per capita calculation.

Pfizer has conducted dry run shipping drills

Pfizer’s and BioNTech’s vaccine, which is based on a new mRNA technology, needs to be kept at -70 C° to -80 C°. In the U.S., Pfizer has designed special thermal packaging to ship its doses. If replenished with dry ice, the doses can remain in those containers for 15 to 20 days. Once removed, the vials can be stored in a refrigerator for up to five days.

In order to train workers who are receiving the doses, Pfizer has conducted dry runs of shipping its vaccine to 10 locations. Perna said such trials would be done with all 64 public health jurisdictions receiving vaccines from the CDC—most of which are state health departments—to make sure those administering the vaccine are comfortable handling it.

“I’ve personally gone through the process, put my hand in the box, pulled out trays, and timed myself in the execution, and it’s a very, very doable process,” he said. The Pfizer containers will include 975 doses. “We feel confident that if states plan dosages in the right locations, with the drumbeat and cadence of [regular manufacturing], administration of the vaccine to a minimum amount of 975 doses is very doable within 20 days,” he added.

Once the first batch of vaccines are shipped, the next batch will be dispatched within 21 days for the Pfizer vaccine and 28 days for the Moderna vaccine, so people who received their first dose will be able to get their second shot. Once the manufacturing reaches a regular cadence, shipments will be distributed weekly. States will be able to order vaccines through a 24/7 system, and the doses will be shipped the following day.

It will take months until most of the American population can be vaccinated

Vaccine manufacturing will gradually increase as more shots are authorized by the FDA, and people will be vaccinated according to guidelines set by the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), among others. The ACIP recently released principles that it says should guide who gets vaccinated first; these factors include risk as well as equity. Health care workers, first responders and others with essential jobs will be first in line, with the elderly and those with chronic health conditions next. It likely won’t be until next spring or summer that the majority of the American public will be eligible to get vaccinated.

“We are bridging to when we have vaccines first for the most vulnerable like health care workers, first responders and eventually the broad American population,” Azar said. “[Until then] wash your hands, watch your distance and wear face coverings when you can’t watch your distance, and stay out of settings where you can’t do those things.”

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