1. Future.delayed Dart
  2. Future.delayed
  3. Future Delay. Games

Source code:Lib/asyncio/futures.py,Lib/asyncio/base_futures.py

Future objects are used to bridge low-level callback-based codewith high-level async/await code.

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Future Functions¶

asyncio.isfuture(obj)

Return True if obj is either of:

  • an instance of asyncio.Future,

  • an instance of asyncio.Task,

  • a Future-like object with a _asyncio_future_blockingattribute.

asyncio.ensure_future(obj, *, loop=None)

Return:

  • obj argument as is, if obj is a Future,a Task, or a Future-like object (isfuture()is used for the test.)

  • a Task object wrapping obj, if obj is acoroutine (iscoroutine() is used for the test);in this case the coroutine will be scheduled byensure_future().

  • a Task object that would await on obj, if obj is anawaitable (inspect.isawaitable() is used for the test.)

If obj is neither of the above a TypeError is raised.

Important

See also the create_task() function which is thepreferred way for creating new Tasks.

Changed in version 3.5.1: The function accepts any awaitable object.

asyncio.wrap_future(future, *, loop=None)

Wrap a concurrent.futures.Future object in aasyncio.Future object.

Future Object¶

class asyncio.Future(*, loop=None)

A Future represents an eventual result of an asynchronousoperation. Not thread-safe.

Future is an awaitable object. Coroutines can await onFuture objects until they either have a result or an exceptionset, or until they are cancelled.

Future.delayed dart

Typically Futures are used to enable low-levelcallback-based code (e.g. in protocols implemented using asynciotransports)to interoperate with high-level async/await code.

The rule of thumb is to never expose Future objects in user-facingAPIs, and the recommended way to create a Future object is to callloop.create_future(). This way alternative event loopimplementations can inject their own optimized implementationsof a Future object.

Changed in version 3.7: Added support for the contextvars module.

result()

Return the result of the Future.

If the Future is done and has a result set by theset_result() method, the result value is returned.

If the Future is done and has an exception set by theset_exception() method, this method raises the exception.

If the Future has been cancelled, this method raisesa CancelledError exception.

If the Future’s result isn’t yet available, this method raisesa InvalidStateError exception.

set_result(result)

Mark the Future as done and set its result.

Future delay. games

Raises a InvalidStateError error if the Future isalready done.

set_exception(exception)

Mark the Future as done and set an exception.

Raises a InvalidStateError error if the Future isalready done.

done()

Return True if the Future is done.

A Future is done if it was cancelled or if it has a resultor an exception set with set_result() orset_exception() calls.

cancelled()

Return True if the Future was cancelled.

The method is usually used to check if a Future is notcancelled before setting a result or an exception for it:

add_done_callback(callback, *, context=None)

Add a callback to be run when the Future is done.

The callback is called with the Future object as its onlyargument.

Future.delayed Dart

If the Future is already done when this method is called,the callback is scheduled with loop.call_soon().

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An optional keyword-only context argument allows specifying acustom contextvars.Context for the callback to run in.The current context is used when no context is provided.

functools.partial() can be used to pass parametersto the callback, e.g.:

Changed in version 3.7: The context keyword-only parameter was added.See PEP 567 for more details.

remove_done_callback(callback)

Remove callback from the callbacks list.

Returns the number of callbacks removed, which is typically 1,unless a callback was added more than once.

cancel(msg=None)

Cancel the Future and schedule callbacks.

If the Future is already done or cancelled, return False.Otherwise, change the Future’s state to cancelled,schedule the callbacks, and return True.

exception()

Return the exception that was set on this Future.

The exception (or None if no exception was set) isreturned only if the Future is done.

Future.delayed

If the Future has been cancelled, this method raises aCancelledError exception.

If the Future isn’t done yet, this method raises anInvalidStateError exception.

get_loop()

Future Delay. Games

Return the event loop the Future object is bound to.

New in version 3.7.

This example creates a Future object, creates and schedules anasynchronous Task to set result for the Future, and waits untilthe Future has a result:

Important

The Future object was designed to mimicconcurrent.futures.Future. Key differences include:

  • unlike asyncio Futures, concurrent.futures.Futureinstances cannot be awaited.

  • asyncio.Future.result() and asyncio.Future.exception()do not accept the timeout argument.

  • asyncio.Future.result() and asyncio.Future.exception()raise an InvalidStateError exception when the Future is notdone.

  • Callbacks registered with asyncio.Future.add_done_callback()are not called immediately. They are scheduled withloop.call_soon() instead.

  • asyncio Future is not compatible with theconcurrent.futures.wait() andconcurrent.futures.as_completed() functions.

  • asyncio.Future.cancel() accepts an optional msg argument,but concurrent.futures.cancel() does not.

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