Origin And Evolution Of Human Settlement. UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN SETTLEMENTS Why people build environments? In order to understand built environments, one should know how the human mind works. The human mind imposes an order on the world. The world is chaotic and disorderly which; the human mind classifies, orders and onto it, imposes cognitive schemata. 1 1 UNDERSTANDING GEOGRAPHY Unit Structure: 1.0. Defining Geography 1.3. Nature and Scope of Geography 1.4. Branches of Geography 1.5. Spatial Distribution of Phenomenon 1.6. Importance of Physical Geography 1.7. Interior of the Earth 1.8. Earthquake Waves 1.9. Distribution of Land and Water 1.10. Conclusion 1.11. OBJECTIVES: Module 1 is on. Using the answers obtained in 1, 2 and 3 above, explain what a population structure is. Population structure refers to the composition of a given population. It is broken down into categories such as age and gender. The population structure of a given country is represented diagrammatically by use of population pyramids. 1.2 Changing populations and places; 1.3 Challenges and opportunities; Unit 1 revision; Unit 2: Global climate - vulnerability and resilience. 2.1 Causes of global climate change; 2.2 Consequences of global climate change; 2.3 Responding to global climate change; Unit 2 revision; Unit 3: Global resource consumption and security.

  1. Human Geography Unit 1
  2. Types Of Settlement In Geography
  3. Geography Unit 1 Test

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 Human Settlements

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

1. Choose the right answers of the followings from the given options:

Question 1.(i)
Which one of the following towns is NOT located on a river bank?
(a) Agra
(b) Bhopal
(c) Patna
(d) Kolkata
Answer:
(b) Bhopal

Question 1.(ii)
Which one of the following is NOT the part of the definition of a town as per the census of India?
(a) Population density of 400 persons per sq km.
(b) Presence of municipality, corporation, etc.
(c) More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector.
(d) Population size of more than 5,000 persons.
Answer:
(c) More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector.

Question 1.(iii)
In which one of the following environments does one expect the presence of dispersed rural settlements?
(a) Alluvial plains of Ganga
(b) Arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan
(c) Lower valleys of Himalayas
(d) Forests and hills in north-east
Answer:
(d) Forests and hills in north-east

Question 1.(iv)
Which one of the following group of cities have been arranged in the sequence of their ranks i.e. 1, 2, 3 and 4 in size?
(a) Greater Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai
(b) Delhi, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
(c) Kolkata, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
(d) Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai
Answer:
(d) Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

Question 2.(i)
What are garrisson towns? What is their function?
Answer:
Garrison towns are the towns whose formation is a result of the setting up of a military base. They are also referred to as cantonment towns. Ambala, Mhow, etc can be referred to as garrison towns. The main function of the garrison towns is to cater to the needs of defence and people employed in defence services of the nation. These are specially designed for the purpose of military, navy or airforce activities.

Question 2.(ii)
How can one identify an urban agglomeration?
Answer:
An urban agglomeration consists of any one of the following three combinations:

  • a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths,
  • two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowths, and
  • a city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming a contiguous spread.

Examples of urban outgrowth are railway colonies, university campus, port area, military cantonment, etc. located within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town or city.

Question 2.(iii)
What are the main factors for the location of villages in desert regions?
Answer:
Desert regions are characterized by aridity that is lack of water, hence scanty vegetation which is xerophytic in nature. Main factor in the desert for settlement patterns is supply of water. In Rajasthan in India there tend to be clustered settlements around oasis and other regions of water availability. Since these are the only few regions where water is available, therefore settlement around the water source become clustered and is the main driving force for habitation.

Question 2.(iv)
What are metropolitan cities? How are they different from urban agglomerations?
Answer:
According to census of India the cities with population between 1 to 5 million are termed as metropolitan cities. An urban agglomeration is a stretch of urban area which may comprise two or more cities. Many of the metropolitan cities of India are basically urban agglomeration.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:

Question 3.(i)
Discuss the features of different types of rural settlements. What are the factors responsible for the settlement patterns in different physical environments?
Answer:
In India compact or clustered village of a few hundred houses is common, particularly in the northern plains. But, there are areas, with other forms of rural settlements. There are various factors and conditions responsible for having different types of rural settlements in India. These include:

  • physical features – nature of terrain, altitude, climate and availability of water
  • cultural and ethnic factors – social structure, caste and religion
  • security factors – defense against thefts and robberies. Guided by these factors rural settlements in India can broadly

be put into four types:

  • Clustered, agglomerated or nucleated,
  • Semi-clustered or fragmented,
  • Hamleted, and
  • Dispersed or isolated.

Clustered Settlements: The clustered rural settlement is a compact or closely built . up area of houses. Here the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures. The closely built-up area and its intervening streets give rise to pattern or geometric shape, such as rectangular, radial, linear, etc. These are generally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states. People live in compact village for security or defence reasons, such as in the Bundelkhand region of central India and in Nagaland. In Rajasthan, scarcity of water has necessitated compact settlement for maximum utilisation of available water resources.

Semi-Clustered Settlements: Semi-clustered or fragmented settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement. In this case, one or more sections of the village society choose or is forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village. Generally, the land-owning and dominant community occupies the central part of the main village, whereas people of lower strata of society and menial workers settle on the outer flanks of the village.

Hamleted Settlements: This settlement is fragmented into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name. These units are locally • called panna, para, palli, nagla, dhani, etc. in various parts of the country. This segmentation of a large village is often due to social and ethnic factors.

Dispersed Settlements: Dispersed or isolated settlement pattern in India appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes. Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.

Question 3.(ii)
Can one imagine the presence of only one-function town? Why do the cities become multi-functional?
Answer:
Towns and cities are generally classified on the basis of the functions they perform. No town performs a single function, rather they are classified on the basis of the dominant function they perform. Even specialised cities, as they grow into metropolises become multifunctional wherein industry, business, administration, transport, etc. become important. The functions get so intertwined that the city can not be categorised in a particular functional class. Due to varying needs of human beings all the people of a town cannot be engaged in a single activity. Even if a town is a garrison town, basic trade activities must be carried out to provide the residents with the articles of day to day need, food items etc. To support the dominant activity of the town, the ancillary activities start emerging.

Mumbai is a transport town due to presence of port in Mumbai but it is also hub of international trade in India, hence is a trade town, Also it is the commercial capital of the country due to varying commercial activities, which are a result of the presence of large capital in the city because of it being a trading town and a port city. Therefore the presence of a dominant of a single function also attracts people to the town, which in turn create conditions conducive for development of other functions hence, towns become multifunctional. The functions performed in a town are extremely dynamic, new functions keep’ on adding and old functions getting linked with each other. Therefore, in modern economies no town can be a single functioned town.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 NCERT Extra Questions

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define human settlements.
Answer:
Human settlement means cluster of dwellings of any type or size where human beings live. It involves grouping of people and apportioning of territory as a resource base.

Question 2 .
Which factors help in determining types of settlement?
Answer:
Types of settlement are determined by the extent of the built up area and inter house distance.

Question 3.
Define and name an ancient town.
Answer:
Ancient towns are over 2000 years old with a historical background and developed as religious and cultural centres. Varanasi, Prayag, Pataliputra, Madurai are examples of ancient towns.

Question 4.
Which are the medieval towns of India?
Answer:
Some medieval towns of India are Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Agra, Lucknow, Nagpur, etc.

Question 5.
Why did the foreigners first establish the modern towns in India?
Answer:
Foreigners first developed trading ports to get their foothold like Surat, Daman, Puducherry, Goa.

Question 6.
What percentage of people in India live in urban centers?
Answer:
31.16% people live in urban centers in India.

Question 7.
How is level of urbanization measured?
Answer:
Level of urbanization is measured in terms of percentage of urban population to total population.

Question 8.
How many million plus cities are there in India? Name the largest and the smallest one.
Answer:
As per 2011 census, there are 53 million plus cities/ urban agglomerations in India. The largest million plus city in India is Mumbai and the smallest is Kota.

Question 9.
What can be the size of human settlement?
Answer:
The size of settlement ranges from a hamlet in rural areas to metropolitan cities.

Question 10.
Classify the human settlements on the basis of economic activities.
Answer:
On the basis of economic activities, human settlements are of two types:

  • Rural Settlement
  • Urban Settlement

Question 11.
Define urban settlements.
Answer:
Settlements are generally compact and longer in size with the main population engaged in non-agricultural, economic and administrative functions.

Question 12.
Name different types of rural settlements.
Answer:
Types of rural settlements:

  • Clustered, agglomerated or nucleated,
  • Semi-clustered or fragmented,
  • Hamleted, and
  • Dispersed or isolated.

Question 13.
What are different categories of Indian towns on the basis of history?
Answer:
On the basis of history, Indian towns have been categorized into:

  • Ancient Towns
  • Medieval Towns
  • Modern Towns

Question 14.
Which towns have developed in India after independence?
Answer:
Modern towns have developed in India after independence. The British and other Europeans have developed a number of towns in India. They first developed some trading ports such as Surat, Daman, Goa, Puducherry, Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras), and Kolkata (Calcutta).

Question 15.
Name the ancient towns of India.
Answer:
Prayag (Allahabad), Pataliputra (Patna), Madurai, etc. are some of the examples of the ancient towns of India.

Question 16.
Name those towns which have become mega cities.
Answer:
Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad are mega cities in the country.

Question 17.
Name the biggest urban agglomeration of India.
Answer:
Greater Mumbai is the largest urban agglomeration with 16.4 million people.

Question 18.
On the basis of census, in how many categories have towns of India been divided?
Answer:
On the basis of census, towns have been classified into six categories.

Question 19.
What is a metropolitan city?
Answer:
It is a city with population of 1 million to 5 million.

Question 20.
Are towns static in their functions?
Answer:
Cities are not static in their functions and functions change due to their dynamic nature. Even specialized cities, as they grow in metros become multi functional where industries business, administration, transport become important.

Question 21.
Name a few religious and cultural towns of India.
Answer:
Varanasi, Mathura, Amritsar, Madurai, Puri, Ajmer, Pushkar, Tirupati, Kurukshetra, Haridwar, Ujjain, etc. are some of the religious and cultural towns.

Question 22.
Name some of the tourist towns of India.
Answer:
Nainital, Mussoorie, Shimla, Pachmarhi, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Udagamandalam (Ooty), Mount Abu are some of the tourist towns.

Question 23.
What are garrisson cantonment towns?
Answer:
The towns which emerge by defence functions of the government are called garrisson cantonment towns. For example, Ambala, Jalandhar, Mhow, Babina, Udhampur, etc.

Review

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give two characteristics of urban settlement in India. How are cities connected to rural centres?
Answer:
Urban settlements are generally compact and larger in size and they are engaged in variety of non agricultural, economic and administrative functions. Cities are functionally linked to rural areas around them. Exchange of goods and services with food and raw materials is either performed directly or sometimes through market towns and cities.

Question 2.
Write a note on evolution of towns in India.
Answer:
On the basis of their evolution in different periods, Indian towns may be classified as:

  • Ancient towns
  • Medieval towns and
  • Modern towns.

Ancient Towns: There are number of towns in India having historical background spanning over 2000 years. Most of them developed as religious and cultural centres. Varanasi is one of the important towns among these. Prayag (Allahabad), Pataliputra (Patna), Madurai are some other examples of ancient towns in the country.

Medieval Towns: About 100 of the existing towns have their roots in the medieval period and they developed as headquarters of principalities and kingdoms. These are fort towns which came up on the ruins of ancient towns. Important among them are Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Lucknow, Agra and Nagpur.

Modern Towns: The British and other Europeans have developed a number of towns in India. Starting their foothold on coastal locations, they first developed some trading ports such as Surat, Daman, Goa, Pondicherry, etc. Later they developed principle nodes of Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras), and Kolkata (Calcutta). They established administrative centres, hilltowns as summer resorts, and added military areas to them. After independence, a large number of towns were developed as administrative headquarters, example; Chandigarh, Bhubaneswar, Gandhinagar, Dispur, etc. and industrial centres such as Durgapur, Bhilai, Sindri, Barauni. Some old towns also developed as satellite towns around metropolitan cities such as Ghaziabad, Rohtak, Gurgaon around Delhi.

Question 3.
What factors are responsible for different types of rural settlements in India?
Answer:
There are many factors and conditions responsible for different types of rural settlements in India. They are:

  • Physical features – nature of terrain, altitude, climate and availability of water,
  • Cultural and ethnic factors – social structure, caste and religion.
  • Security factors – defence against thefts and robberies.

Question 4.
Where do we find clustered settlements in India? Explain their features.
Answer:
Clustered settlements are found in fertile alluvial plains and the north-eastern states. People live in compact village for security or defence reasons, such as in the Bundelkhand region of central India and in Nagaland. In Rajasthan, scarcity of water has necessitated compact settlement for maximum utilisation of available water resources.
Their features:

  • It is an area of compact or closely built up area of houses
  • The general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms and pastures.
  • The closely built-up area and its intervening streets present some recognisable pattern or geometric shape, such as rectangular, radial, linear, etc.

Question 5.
Write a few features of rural settlements.
Answer:
Features of rural settlements:

  • Rural settlements are most closely and directly related to land.
  • They are dominated by primary activities such as agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, etc.
  • The settlements size is relatively small and rate of growth and expansion is low.
  • Usually rural settlements are located near water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and springs where water can be easily obtained.
  • People living in rural areas have strong relationship among themselves because they are similar in their culture, social and religious issues.
  • The houses in rural areas are similar in their construction pattern which is according to the climatic conditions.

Question 6.
Write a few features of urban settlements.
Ans. Features of urban settlements:

  • Urban settlements have a close relationship with technology and man made things.
  • Most of the people are engaged in secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities in these areas.
  • The settlement size is large and there is high density of population.
  • Urban settlements are located near industrial areas, ports, administrative centers, etc.
  • In order to take care of urban areas, Municipality, Cantonment Board or Notified Area Council are formed. Similarly, in Latin American countries, such as Brazil and Bolivia, any administrative centre is considered urban irrespective of its population size.

Question 7.
Explain the classification of urban settlement on the basis of population size.
Answer:
Census of India classifies urban centres in the six following classes.

All classesPopulation size
I1,00,000 and more
II50,000-99,999
III20,000-49,999
IV10,000-19,999
V5,000-9,999
VILess than 5,000
  • Population of more than one lakh people is called a city or class I town.
  • Cities accommodating population size between one to five million are mega cities.
  • 61% of population living in urban areas lives in class I town.
  • Out of 423 cities, 35 urban agglomerations are metros, 6 of them are mega cities with one fifth (21.01%) of population.

Question 8.
What do you mean by urbanization and levels of urbanization in India?
Answer:
Urbanization refers to development of villages and rural areas into towns with high standard of living and civic amenities. The level of urbanization is measured in terms of percentage of urban population to the total population. The level of urbanization in India in 2001 was 28%.

Question 9.
What factors are responsible for different types of human settlements?
Answer:
There are various factors and conditions responsible for having different types of rural settlements in India. These include:

  • Physical features – nature of terrain, altitude, climate and availability of water,
  • Cultural and ethnic factors – social structure, caste and religion.
  • Security factors – defence against thefts and robberies.

Question 10.
When did maximum urban growth take place in India? What were its causes?
Answer:
With increasing investment in rural areas, a large number of medium and small towns have developed all over the country. The level of urbanization in India in 2001 was 28 per cent, which is quite low in comparison to developed countries. Total urban population has increased eleven fold during twentieth century. Enlargement of urban centers and emergence of new towns have played a significant role in the growth of urban population and urbanization in the country.

Question 11.
What do you mean by urban agglomeration?
Answer:
An urban agglomeration may consist of any one of the following three combinations:

  • A town and its adjoining urban outgrowths,
  • Two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowths, and
  • A city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming a contiguous spread.

Question 12.
What is the total urban population of India? In which type of towns does this population live?
Answer:
As per 2011 census urban population in India is 377,000,000. 60% of urban population in India lives in class I towns.

Question 13.
Name different types of towns on the basis of their functions.
Answer:
On the basis of their functions different types of towns are as follows:

  • Administrative towns and cities
  • Mining towns
  • Industrial towns
  • Garrisson cantonment towns
  • Transport cities
  • Educational towns
  • Commercial towns
  • Religious and cultural towns
  • Tourist towns

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define Human settlement. Briefly describe the rural settlement types in India.
Answer:
Cluster of dwellings of any type or size where human beings live is called human settlement. It involves grouping of people and apportioning of territory as a resource base. Settlements vary in size and type. Types of settlements are determined by the extent of built up area, inter house distance. There are four types of rural settlements in India:

The clustered rural settlement is a compact or closely built up area of houses. Here, the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures. The closely built-up area and streets form recognizable pattern or geometric shape, such as rectangular, radial, linear, etc. These are found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states. People live in compact village for security or region of central India and in Nagaland. In Rajasthan, scarcity of water has necessitated compact settlement for maximum utilisation of available water resources.

Semi-Clustered Settlements: Semi- clustered or fragmented settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement. Sometimes one or more sections of the village society choose or is forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village. Generally, the land-owning and dominant community occupies the central part of the main village.

Hamleted Settlements: Sometimes settlement is divided into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name motivated by social and ethnic factors. These units are locally called panna, para, palli, nagla, dhani, etc. in various parts of the country.

Dispersed Settlements: Dispersed or isolated settlement pattern in India appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes. Extreme dispersion of settlement is caused by fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.

Question 2.
How many classes of town are there in India based on population size? Give the size as well. Which of them has the highest percentage of people?
Answer:
6 classes of towns.
Class I — More than 1 lakh population
Class II — 50,000 – 99999
Class III — 20,000 – 49999
Class IV — 10,000 – 19999
Class V — 5000 – 9999
Class VI — Less than
Class I towns have highest percentage.

Question 3.
Write a note on functional classification of towns.
Answer:
Some towns and cities specialize in certain functions and they are known for some specific activities, products or services. Indian cities and towns can be broadly classified as follows:

Administrative towns and cities: Towns supporting administrative headquarters of higher order are administrative towns, such as Chandigarh ,New Delhi, Bhopal, Shillong, Guwahati, Imphal, Srinagar, Gandhinagar, Jaipur, Chennai, etc.

Industrial towns: Industries constitute prime motive force of these cities such as Mumbai, Salem, Coimbatore, Modinagar, Jamshedpur, Hugli, Bhilai, etc.

Transport Cities: They may be ports primarily engaged in export and import activities such as Kandla, Kochchi, Kozhikode, Vishakhapatnam, etc. or hubs of inland transport such as Agra, Dhulia, Mughal Sarai, Itarsi, Katni, etc.

Commercial towns: Towns and cities specialising in trade and commerce are kept in this class. Kolkata, Saharanpur, Satna, etc. are some examples.

Mining towns: These towns have developed in mineral rich areas such as Raniganj, Jharia, Digboi, Ankaleshwar, Singrauli, etc.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Data Based Questions

Question 1.
Study table 4.1 and write a note on Trends of urbanization in India during 1901-2001.

YearTotal number of towns/UA’sUrban Population (in Thousands)% share of Total populationDecadal growth rate (%)
19011,82725,851.910.84
19111,81525,941.610.290.35
19211,94928,086.211.188.27
19312,07233,456.011.9919.12
19412,25044,153.313.8631.97
19512,84362,443.717.2941.42
19612,36578,936.617.9726.41
19712,5901,09,11419.9138.23
19813,3781,59,46323.3446.14
19914,6892,17,61125.7136.47
20015,1612,85,35527.7831.13
20117,9353,77,00031.1631.08

Answer:
In 1901 11% of India’s population was living in urban areas, while in 2011 it increased to 31%. Decennial growth rate was highest in decade of 1971 and 1981 at 46%. The growth rate has now come down to 31%. The rate of urbanization came down during the decade of 1951 to 1961 and again started rising and the decennial growth was highest in 1971-1981 decade, possibly due to development in agriculture and industrial sector and better economic conditions of our country.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Differentiates

Question 1.
Differentiate between urban and rural settlements in India.
Answer:

Urban SettlementsRural Settlements
(i) These settlements are larger. Some of these cities occupy a large area. They have thousand or lakhs of houses.(i) They are small settlements and have smaller number of houses. Population resides in villages.
(ii) The occupational structure is complex and varied in nature. The work is done in built up area. People are engaged in industries, administration, trade and commerce and other activities.(ii) The occupational structure is very simple. They are directly dependant on nature. Farming, fishing, lumbering Eire main occupations. Work is done in the field.
(iii) People are dependent on the rural areas for food and raw materials for the industries.(iii) Rural people are dependent on the urban area for the finished products services.
(iv) Urban settlements have permanent structure of buildings. The material is bought from distant places. The settlements are mostly compact and to a great extent planned one.(iv) Rural settlements do not have sufficient or adequate facilities for building their houses. They use local material and settlements are dispersed. The houses are not planned. The water supply and elevated land free from floods are main locational factors
(v) Urban settlements have more facilities such as roads, electricity, telephone, hospitals, etc.(v) Rural settlements do not have modern amenities.
(vi) The houses are built according to the choice and liking of the individual with no definite layout plan.(vi) The houses are built with a courtyard, a store room, enclosures for animals and roofs are made according to the weather conditions.
(vii) The problem of pollution, sewage and slums are growing as cities are growing. City life is fast and self centered.(vii) The rural areas have simple living and are free from city bound problems.

Question 2.
Differentiate between semi-clustered and dispersed settlements.
Answer:

BasisSemi-clustered settlementsDispersed settlements
FormationIt is formed due to clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement. This pattern results from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact area.It appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms and pastures on the slopes.
Cause for their developmentOne or more sections of the village society choose or is forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village whereas the land owning and dominant community occupies the central part of the main village and mental workers settle on the outer flanks of the village.Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.
AreasSuch settlements are widespread in the Gujarat plain and some parts of Rajasthan.Many areas of Meghalaya, Uttaranchal, H.P and Kerala have this type of settlement.

Human Geography Unit 1

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

Question 1.
“Compact or clustered village is a universal feature in the northern plains”. Give reasons.
Answer:
Compact or clustered village is a universal feature in the northern plains due to following reasons:

  • Level and fertile land
  • More labour force
  • Abundant supply of water for various activities
  • Social security
  • Better transportation facilities
  • Major portion of the population is landless; hence they are bound to live together.

Question 2.
Mention how will you judge whether a settlement to be classified as a town according to 2001 census.
Answer:
Given below are the criterion that I will use to judge whether a given settlement is to be classified as a town or not:

  • Population size should be 5000 or more.
  • Density of population should be more than 400 persons/sq. km
  • More than 75% of male workers should be engaged in non-agricultural activities.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Map Based Questions

Question 1.
Locate and label the following on the political map of India with appropriate symbols:
Cities with more than 10 million population.
Answer:
Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Important Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Name the most developed religious and cultural centre of the ancient period in India. (Foreign 2009)
Answer:
Varanasi and Ayodhya.

Types Of Settlement In Geography

Question 2.
Name the largest metropolitan city of Uttar Pradesh. Write its population according to Census 2001. (Delhi 2009)
Answer:
Kanpur, population 2.69 million.

Question 3.
Name the largest metropolitan city of Madhya Pradesh. What was its population according to the census 2001? (AJ. 2009)
Answer:
Indore, population 1.64 million.

Question 4.
Which class of cities has the highest percentage of urban population in India? (Delhi 2010)
Answer:
Cities of class-I over 1,00,000 .population.

Geography Unit 1 Test

Question 5.
What is the population size of class II cities in India? (Foreign 2010)
Answer:
50,000 – 99,999.

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Human geography unit 2

Question 6.
Which class of cities has the largest number of towns and cities in India? (A.I. 2010)
Answer:
Class-I cities has the largest number of towns and cities in India.

Question 7.
Give any two examples of Ancient towns of India. (CBSE 2008, 2014)
Answer:
Pataliputra and Varanasi.

Question 8.
Give the meaning of human settlement. (CBSE 2011)
Answer:
Human settlement means cluster of dwellings where people live more or less permanently.

Question 9.
Name the metropolitan city of Karnataka State as per 2001 census. (A.I. 2011)
Answer:
Bengaluru.

Question 10.
Name the metropolitan city of Bihar. (A.I. 2011)
Answer:
Patna.

Question 11.
Name any two ‘Garrisson Contonment’ cities of India. (Foreign 2011)
Answer:
Ambala and Jalandhar.

Question 12.
Name any two famous transport cities of India. (Foreign 2011)
Answer:
Kandla and Kochi.

Question 13.
Name any two famous administrative cities of India. (Foreign 2011)
Answer:
Chandigarh and New Delhi.

Question 14.
Give any two examples of mining towns in India. (CBSE 2013)
Answer:
Two examples of mining towns in India are:

  1. Raniganj and
  2. Jharia.

Question 15.
Give the meaning of ‘clustered rural settlement’ of India. (A.I. 2013)
Answer:
The clustered rural settlement is a compact or closely built up area of houses. In this type of village the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures. The closely built up area and its intervening streets present some recognisable pattern or geometric shape. Q16. Give one example of ancient historical town of Bihar. (A.I. 2014)
Answer:
Pataliputra (Patna)

Question 16.
Distinguish between towns and villages on the basis of occupation. (CBSE 2015)
Answer:
The basic difference between towns and villages is that in towns the main occupation of the people is related to secondary and tertiary sectors, while in the villages most of the people are engaged in primary occupations such as agriculture, fishing, lumbering, mining, animal husbandry etc.

Question 17.
What two factors mostly helped in the development of ancient towns in India? (CBSE 2015)
Answer:

  • Religion
  • Culture

Question 18.
How is the level of urbanization measured in India? (CBSE 2015)
Answer:
The level of urbanization is measured in terms of percentage of urban population to total population.

Question 19.
Name any two garrison (cantonment towns of India. (A.I. 2017)
Answer:
Garrison Town – Ambala, Jalandhar, Mhow, Babina, Udhampur (Any two)

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Explain any three characteristics of dispersed settlements found in India. (Foreign 2009)
Answer:
Three characteristics of dispersed settlement in India Eire:

  1. It appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles.
  2. It also appears on small bills with farms or pasture on the slopes.
  3. Its extreme dispersion is caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.

Question 2.
Divide the population of the world into two groups on basis of residence. How do they differ from each other? Explain any two points of difference. (CBSE 2011)
Answer:
(a) Rural
(b) Urban

  • Rural and urban lifestyles differ from each other from the point of view of lifestyle and social structure.
  • Occupational structure is different. In the rural areas people predominantly are engaged in primary activities.
  • Level of development varies vastly especially in the developing countries.

Question 3.
Give the meaning of ‘dispersed settlement’. Explain any two reasons for the development of such settlements in India. (A.I. 2014)
Answer:
Dispersed settlement pattern in India appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles or on small hills with farms or pastures on slopes.
Reasons for development:

  • It develops due to extremely fragmented nature of the terrain.
  • These settlements are land resource base

Question 4.
“Many of the modern towns in India were developed during the period of British domination”. Substantiate the statement. (Delhi 2016)
Answer:

  • The British had developed a number of the modern towns in India.
  • Starting their foothold on coastal locations.
  • First of all they developed some trading ports.
  • Surat, Daman, Goa, Puducherry (Pondicherry) etc., were developed as trading centres.
  • After that they consolidated their hold around three nodes. Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras) and Kolkata (Calcutta).
  • They also developed their administrative centres, hill towns as summer resorts.
  • They developed new civil administrative and military areas.
  • Towns based on modern industries also evolved after 1850 such as Jamshedpur.

Question 5.
Explain any three features of semi- clustered rural settlements of India. (A.I. 2015)
Answer:
Features:

  • Semi-clustered settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement.
  • Such settlements may also result from fragmentation of a large compact village,
  • In this case, one or more sections of the village society is forced to live a little away from the main village

Question 6.
Explain the three basic differences between rural and urban settlements in India. (Delhi 2017)
Answer:
Differences between Rural and Urban settlements in India:

  • Rural settlements derive their life support from land based primary activities while urban settlements depend on processing of raw materials and various services.
  • Cities act as nodes of economic growth. They provide goods and services to both urban and rural centres.
  • Rural settlements supply food and raw materials while urban areas provide services.
  • Both settlements differ in social relationships, attitude and outlook.
    (Any three points of difference to be explained)

Question 7.
Explain any three features of urban settlements in India. (CBSE 2018)
Answer:
Three features of urban settlements in India;.

  • Urban settlements are generally compact and larger in size.
  • Some towns and cities specialize in certain functions and they are known for some specific activities, products and services.
  • People are engaged in non-agricultural activities, economic and administrative functions.

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions

Subject MatterApproaches to the StudySiteSlums Our Urban Realm Turning into Big Slum?Slums are Manifestation of Urban PovertyTrends and Patterns of UrbanizationArchaeological Discoveries from Nile Valley Archaeological Discoveries of Indus ValleyFirst Urbanization in India:Indus ValleyWhy Indus Valley Civilization Declined?Rural Urban Continuum Rural-Urban FringeEarly Urban HearthsAge of Town Scheme of Griffith Taylor and an Asian Perspective from Chanakya’s ArthashastraVon Thunen ModelSector ModelMultiple Nuclei ModelConcentric Zone ModelClassification of Cities by Chauncy D. Harris Howard Nelson’s Classification of CitiesProblems of CitiesSettlement PlanningUrban Sociology TheoriesUrban SystemsProcess,Pattern and Functions of Human SettlementVillage: Basic Unit of SettlementRural Settlements in IndiaTraditional Settlement Patterns in Rural India and Need For Settlement PlanningTypes and forms of rural houses in IndiaSome Shelters For Natural DisastersA New Urban OrderMaking a City: Politics, Power and DemocracyPutting GIS to Work in Today’s CityTop Ten Urban Innovations According to World Economic ForumSome City Problems of KolkataRural Service Centres : An Overview
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